Advertisement and Marketing Ethics

In modern community, every behavior need be covered by rules or laws. In general, public laws and rules can control people’s behaviors and avoid issues occur. Advertisements also need laws and regulations determine what its can or cannot do. However, not every issue is covered by a rule. Marketers must often make decisions regarding appropriate and responsible actions on the basis of ethical considerations rather than on hat is legal or within industry guidelines (Belch, p731).
According to variety of advertisement, I collect three typical examples of advertisements that are ethically questionable.  One of the major complaints against advertising is that many ads are misleading or untruthful and deceive consumers (Belch, p733). As the example of untruthful advertisement, I find Nestle. Nestle is one of biggest multinational food and beverage companies around the world. As the infant formula producer, Nestle marketed their product as a breast milk replacement in developing countries. According to the article about Nestle milk issue, the author mentions the New Internationalist published an exposé on Nestlé's marketing practices in 1973, "Babies Mean Business," which described how the company got Third World mothers hooked on baby formula (Krasny, 2012). They used the motivation that consumers who believe infant formula could give baby better nutrition, and the purpose of third world women yearned for westernization to promote their products could substitute breast milk.
Furthermore, relationship between advertising and children also need society to notice. Children issue always is an sensitive topic in advertisement and media market. Children are group of people who easily influenced by media and promotion. Therefore, advertisers must deal with the issue of advertising to children. Here is an example of Walmart’s Geo Girl cosmetics line especially for age 8 to 12. This cosmetics line promotes eco-friendly products for children’s health. However, using make-up products to young is not positive to children’s mental health. Studies show that girls are susceptible to body image issues and developing low self-esteem, as well as being confronted with issues about dating and sex at younger and younger ages. The NYU Child Study Center (NYUCSC) reports that girls' self esteem peaks when they are about 9 years old and then declines steeply (Newell, 2011). While Geo Girl is not first cosmetics line to be marketed to teens, these products that will make tweens early maturing need be consider to unethical promotion.
The final example will appear is sexual appeals. Sexual appeals that be used in advertising always be critical to public. He advertising appeals that have received the most criticism for being in poor taste are those using sexual appeals such as suggestiveness or nudity (Belch, p735). A common criticism of sexual appeals is use sex objects to attract consumer’s attentions.  Like the ads of Abercrombie & Fitch are known by using sexy models to promote their products. In some special festivals like Black Friday, Abercrombie & Fitch show their muscular men models at outside of the store to attract people shop in their store. In 2003, thousands of Americans threatened to boycott the store, causing it to stop selling the cataloge for a time (Roger, 2012).

(Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/13-brands-that-use-sex-to-sell-their-products-2012-2?op=1 )

Belch, G., & Belch, M. (2012). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective. (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
Jill Krasny (Jun 25, 2012).  Every Parent Should Know The Scandalous History Of Infant Formula. From Business Insider website. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/nestles-infant-formula-scandal-2012-6?op=1#ixzz2yH8t6BIS
Andrea Newell (Jan 31, 2011). Walmart’s Geo Girl: Eco-friendly Cosmetics for 8- to 12-year-olds. From Triple Pundit website. Retrieved from http://www.triplepundit.com/2011/01/geo-girl-eco-friendly-cosmetics-tweens/

Abby Rogers and Aimee Groth (Feb 3, 2012). 13 Brands That Use Sex To Sell Their Products. From Business Insider website. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/13-brands-that-use-sex-to-sell-their-products-2012-2?op=1#ixzz2yHJaWieD



Importance of Pretest advertisement

Pretests are measures taken before the campaign is implemented. Pretest advertisements can evaluate what and how ads effects social communicate before it is publicly showed. Marketers test advertisement on several elements, like source factors, message variables, media strategies and Budgeting decisions. In addition, pretesting can help companies improve their ads and save their money before it is too late. According to the Advertising And Promotion by Belch, it mentions a note by Cramphorn, the best reason to pretest is to identify winners, to enhance good ads, and to eliminate bad ones (Belch, 2012, p609). We can realize pretest is important process to help companies to know the probable effect the ad will have before committing to use. In addition, pretesting finished ads is one of the more commonly employed studies among marketing researchers and their agencies. In this stage, a number of methods for pretesting ads are available. For print ads, there are portfolio tests, readability tests, and dummy advertising vehicles; for broadcast ads, there are theater tests, on-air tests, and physiological measures. Theater test is one of the most popular laboratory methods for pretesting finished commercials in the past. But theater tests cite a number of disadvantages. For example, the contrived measure of brand preference change seems too phony to believe. Critics contend that participants will see though it and make changes just because they think they are supposed to. There is too much artificial thoughts in theater tests. The commercials are in finished form, although the testing of ads earlier in the developmental process is becoming more common, that situation referred to as an on-air test. On-air pretesting of finished or rough commercials offers some district advantages over lab methods and some indications of the ad’s likely success.  Nowadays, the physiological measures become most effective method of pretests.  Marketers use it to test both print and broadcast ads include pupil dilation, galvanic skin response, eye tracking, and brain waves (Belch, 2012, p618). Especially the eye tracking, which is common use in variety of promotions.  By using this method, viewers are asked to view an ad while a sensor aims a beam of infrared light at the eye. Eye tracking can identify strengths and weaknesses in an ad. Attractive models or background action may distract the viewer’s attention away from the brand or product being advertised (Belch, 2012, p618). However, a good eye-tracking ad also can attract consumer toward the brand or product.  There are several examples in the article 10 of the World’s Biggest Advertisements (Guerrilla Marketing, 2011). It present 10 eye tracking ad of the world, they all use the extra large size billboard to promote their brands. 

Belch, G., & Belch, M. (2012). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective. (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
Kristian Jeffery, (2011). 10 of the World’s Biggest Advertisements, from Creative Guerrilla Marketing website. Retrieved from http://www.creativeguerrillamarketing.com/guerrilla-marketing/10-worlds-biggest-advertisements/


Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Internet

As the advertisers male more use of consumer generated commercials to be placed on Internet, social networks have certainly had a major impact on the media landscape and the way that marketers communicate wit their existing and potential customers. In this information age, Internet becomes an important and maturity role of advertisement market. People can usually watch the commercials are placed on YouTube and similar sites. It is a useful strategy, and there are number of advantages of this strategy can be cited, like target marketing, message tailoring, interactive capabilities and information access. A major advantage of the Web is the ability to target very specific groups of individuals with a minimum of waste coverage (Belch, 2012, p512). For example of YouTube home page, there are varieties of categories. These categories become several target segments. Advertisers placed commercials depend on what their consumers interested in. Therefore, advertisers decline the waste coverage to the minimum, and make the promotion be more effective. To associate with target marketing, information accesses also the advantage of the Internet. Internet users can find a plethora of information about almost any topic of their choosing merely by conducting a search. Users can directly search what they interested in. Then links will direct them to even more information of it is desire, or user can subscribe the publishers they like. Because the Internet is interactive it provides strong potential for increasing customer involvement and satisfaction and almost immediate feedback for buyers and sellers (Belch, 2012, p512). Furthermore, social media is a procedure that interacts with consumers. For example, users can click the “like” or “dislike” button to present their impression of the videos or commercials. Therefore, company analysis the impression of products through consumers’ comments, and improve the shortage of products.
However, the Internet also has its disadvantages, include clutter and irritation.  Clutter is the common issue of advertising promotion. As the number of ads proliferates, the likelihood of one’s ad being noticed drop accordingly (Belch, 2012, p513). In YouTube, the similar videos or commercials will come out in same page. For this issue, consumers might be confused by several similar commercials of a same type of product. The result is that some ads may not get noticed, and some consumers may become irritated by the clutter. In addition, the irritating aspects can deter visitors from coming to and or returning to the sites, or result in negative attributes toward the advertiser (Belch, 2012, p513). I had seen a video about criticism of a super bowl commercial that acted by Scarlett Johansson (YouTube). That video definitely results in negative attributes toward the advertiser, and also influence the sales of product.
Sorry Coke and Pepsi. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDu8p1q-8U0
Overall, I think it is positive to use social network to promote. Because the Internet the effective way to target consumer segment. In addition, Internet is the source of information, so advertiser can promote products more convenient.

Belch, G., & Belch, M. (2011). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective. (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
TYT Sport, 2014, Banned Super Bowl Commercial 2014 - Sorry Coke and Pepsi. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDu8p1q-8U0


Contests And Sweepstakes Online

Sales promotion is the promotional mix that includes advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, publicity/public relations, corporate image and exhibitions (Wikipedia). The purposes of all the sales promotion are inducing trial and improve sales. There are varieties of sales promotion techniques around our life. For example, the common sales promotion present by samples, coupons, premiums, contests and sweepstakes. These sales promotions can be used in both of physical way and Internet. As the technology developing, many companies moving promotions such contest and sweepstakes online. As marketing strategy, Internet is an effective way to spread sales promotion. Companies measuring the effectiveness of the Internet employ a variety of methods, most of which can be done electronically (Belch p510). Therefore, companies moving promotions online. In addition, Internet is a cheap and effective way to run the sales promotion. A major advantage of the Internet is the ability to target very specific groups of individuals with a minimum of waste coverage. Also, its availability as an information source would be one of advantages of the Internet (Belch p512). Furthermore, promote promotion through the Internet can lower the cost of advertisement.

According to my online research, there are several online contests in my results. I find the promotions and contests page of ESPN website is a specific example of online contests. ESPN is a famous US -based global cable and satellite television channel, that is owned as a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company and Hearst Corporation (Wikipedia). At the promotion and contests page of ESPN.com, there are varieties of sweepstakes and contests. The majority of contests are about its cooperative partner, like Disney, KIA and Wendy’s. In addition, these contest all about the sport event that reported by ESPN, like NBA, and college basketball. In the ESPN.com, it target a specific groups of individuals who love sports, and its cooperators also can bring more audiences who might be not interested in sports but interested in other cooperative companies, like Disney. Therefore, online contests and sweepstakes are effective may to promote a brand or product.
 Here is the link of the online contest from ESPN.com: 



Belch, G., & Belch, M. (2011). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective. (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.

No name (February 2014) Sales promotion, Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sales_promotion

No name (March 2014) ESPN, Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ESPN